ITINERARY

day 1

In the Air

Flights to Gdansk participants depart the United States for Gdansk, to arrive the following day.

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day 2

Gdansk

The world has focused on the Polish city of Gdansk twice during the last century. The first shots of WWII rang out here in 1939, and in 1980 the Solidarity movement led by electrician Lech Walesa began its confrontation with the Communist government in the shipyards. The focus of our tour will begin here in Gdansk as we set the stage for our upcoming tour.

The tour will officially start with a Welcome Reception and dinner where participants can get acquainted. We will have a briefing and overview of our upcoming tour and the key sites we will visit.

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day 3

Gdansk

Westerplatte: In1939, the Polish garrison of 182 soldiers withstood German naval, artillery and infantry assaults for seven days in what was the first military action of WWII. Here we will view the massive monument to the Heroes of Westerplatte and visit the small museum nearby in what was Guardhouse No 1. The concrete walls are still pocked by enemy gunfire. The Wisloujscie Fortress, originally constructed in the middle ages stands here as a sentinel for the harbor. Over the years architects upgraded the fortifications to enable resistance to modern weaponry.

From here we will go to the Maritime Museum that houses exhibits that illustrate ancient to contemporary seafaring. The Zuraw, or Crane, is the medieval shipbuilding port crane. Nearby are the WWII destroyer, Blyskawica and the Dar Pomorza, a sailing frigate.

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day 4

Ketrzyn

The Old Town of Gdansk, completely rebuilt after WWII, features a marketplace, ornamentally decorated town houses and numerous monuments along the Royal Way. Perhaps the most famous is the Neptune Fountain, the symbol of the city. We will see this as well as tour the Historical Museum in the old town hall. Its ornate rooms and collections offer insight into the history of the city and an ideal starting point for the Old Town.

After lunch we will depart for Ketrzyn, the site of Hitlers Wolfs Lair. Built in the pine forests of the Masurian Lake District, the headquarters had 50 bunkers, a complete power system, and an airstrip and railroad terminus. Once camouflaged and surrounded by mine fields and razor wire, the ruins offer a glimpse into the sinister nerve center of Hitlers eastern operations. The Wolfsschanze was the setting for the failed plot to assassinate Hitler in July 1944.

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day 5

Warsaw

After an early breakfast we will depart for Warsaw. En route, we will stop at Grunwald, the scene of Europes largest medieval battle. In 1410, the Allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania decisively defeated the Teutonic Knights. This victory drastically changed the balance of power in central Europe.

This area also was the location for the battle of Tannenberg in 1914 between Germany and Russia. It was one of the key battles of WWI, and it put the Romanov Empire on the slippery slope to oblivion.

We arrive in Warsaw in the early evening. Tour members will be able to relax or explore the Old Town and environs.

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day 6

Warsaw

We begin our visit with an exploration of the Polish Military Museum. An array of weaponry, uniforms, paintings and historical collections tell the story of Polish armed forces from the Middle Ages to WWII. Permanent exhibits include The Defense in 1939, and The Polish Army in the East 1943-45. Afterwards we visit the site of the infamous Jewish Ghetto and the Path of Remembrance, which includes the Umschlagplatz where the Nazis loaded deportees onto cattle cars for resettlement in the east. We continue to the Jewish History Institute and finish the day at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

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day 7

Warsaw

We will visit the Old Town (Stare Miasto) and the main square. The people of Warsaw used architectural drawings and artists renderings to completely rebuild and restore this area after the devastation of WWII. We also will tour the Royal Palace at Plac Zamkowy (Castle Square). Here King Zygmunt III took up residence in 1611 and made Warsaw the capital of the Polish Commonwealth. His statue, with a cross in one hand and a sword in the other, stands in the center of the square.

After lunch we will go to the Warsaw Rising Museum. Here we will see the exhibits that describe the history of Poland during the war. The actual Rising of the Polish Home Army against the Germans in 1944 is the main feature. The Home Army of some 40,000 soldiers and citizens battled the Nazis and their reinforcements fiercely for 63 days. They waited in vain for support from the Red Army, but the Soviets refused. In a rare tribute to their enemies, the Nazis granted the Polish combatants POW status.

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day 8

Krakow

We depart for Krakow immediately after breakfast. En route we will stop at the ruins of Krzyztopor Castle, the ancestral home of the Ossolinski family. The family designed and built the castle after the fashion of the calendar: 4 towers (seasons), 12 main halls (months), 52 chambers (weeks), and 365 windows.

In the evening we can enjoy and explore downtown Krakow.

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day 9

Krakow

This morning we walk up Wawel Hill to the Royal Castle. The Poles erected the first buildings here in the year 1000, including a stone cathedral. Redecoration in the Italian Renaissance style occurred in the early 16th century. Here also are the Royal Tombs, where most of Polands monarchs are buried, as well as a few national heroes. Perhaps most notable is Thaddeus Kosciusko, Polish patriot and hero of the American Revolution. Kosciuszko is considered the father of West Point and American artillery.

After lunch we will visit the Polish Home Army Museum. Although the exhibits show Polish military history for the last 100 years, the emphasis is on the struggle and resistance against the Nazis in WWII. Polish pilots were vital in the Battle of Britain, so we will take in the Polish Aviation Museum with more than 100 aircraft at its airfield. Afterwards we will venture to the Kosciuszko Mound. This is a monument created with soil from Polish and American battlefields where he fought.

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day 10

Krakow/Oswiecim

Today we will go to the Kazimierz district, the old Jewish neighborhood, which is home to the museum and the Isaac Synagogue. Afterwards we will cross the Vistula River to what was the Jewish Ghetto. We will see the museum housed in what was once the only pharmacy in the Ghetto and the Enamel Utensil Factory run by Oskar Schindler on Lipowa Street. His efforts to save a group of prisoner-workers became the main subject of the film Schindlers List.

Late morning we will depart for the international symbol of the Holocaust, genocide and terror: Auschwitz. We will see the Main Camp and Birkenau and you will experience the eerie chills of the admonition Arbeit Macht Frei (Work Makes You Free) above the gates. We will return to Krakow in the late afternoon.

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day 11

Zagan

After breakfast we will leave for Zagan where The Great Escape of book and film fame took place. Here at Stalag Luft III, 80 imprisoned airmen escaped through a

111-meter tunnel. Thus began a colossal manhunt throughout the entire territory of the Reich. Only three escapees were completely successful, while 50 of the 73 others were captured and executed. We will see the monument to the escape and visit the Museum of Allied Prisoners of War Martyrdom

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day 12

Berlin

We will depart immediately after breakfast for Seelow Heights. As the massive three pronged Soviet advance converged upon Berlin, General Georgi Zhukov pitted his one million men and more than 3000 tanks against the German defenses on the Oder River. We see the Red Army command bunker and observation posts, German defense trenches and the first Soviet T-34 tank to cross the Oder. After stopping at the cemetery we proceed to Berlin.

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day 13

Berlin

This morning we pass the Brandenburg Gate on the way to the nearby Reichstag. The Nazis paraded through the gates to celebrate their assumption of power in 1933. The famous fire that same year at the Reichstag enabled the Nazis to blame enemies of the state and embark on their official reign of terror. You can still see graffiti left by Red Army soldiers in 1945. We move on to the Soviet Memorial and then a remnant of their post-war legacy, Checkpoint Charlie. This is the well-known Cold War crossing point between East and West Berlin.

That afternoon we will go to the Neue Synagoge, the Jewish main synagogue in the city built in the mid-19th century. The structure was set ablaze on Kristallnacht in November 1938. The restored ornamental Moorish faade still stands. Kristallnacht, or Night of the Broken Glass, was an organized pogrom against the Jews throughout Germany.

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day 14

Berlin

On our final day, we visit Potsdam, home to Prussian kings and center of court until 1918. Potsdam was host to the wars end conference that takes its name. The conference, attended by Truman, Stalin and Churchill (later replaced by Clement Attlee) decided the fate of post-war Europe. We will tour Sanssouci, the former summer palace of Frederick the Great. It is sometimes referred to as the German Versailles. We also will see the Friedrich von Steuben memorial. A Prussian by birth, he came to America to fight under George Washington in the revolution. He was instrumental in introducing formal military drills to the Continental Army.

That evening we will return to our hotel for a farewell dinner.

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day 15

Flight home

A transfer will be offered to the Berlin International Airport.

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